Developmental Screening Quiz
Why is developmental screening so important?
Find out in this quiz, adapted from Developmental Screening in Your Community: An Integrated Approach for Connecting Children with Services by Diane Bricker, Ph.D., Marisa Macy, Ph.D., Jane Squires, Ph.D., & Kevin Marks, M.D., FAAP.
This new guide by the leading developers of ASQ and their colleagues describes how communities can create a low-cost, reliable system for early detection of developmental issues in young children.
Developmental Screening quiz
What is the most successful way to ensure early detection of developmental issues from birth-5?
Through the judgment of an experienced clinician or other practitioner.
Through periodic developmental-behavioral screening using a formal measure or procedure.
By relying on parental concerns.
Through a pediatric brain scan.
All of the above.
While A & C are necessary and critical components, the most successful way to ensure early detection of developmental problems from birth through age 5 is through periodic developmental-behavioral screening using a formal measure or procedure.
What is "developmental-behavioral screening"?
Informal observation of a child's development and behavior in a natural setting.
Analysis of a video-taped session of a child interacting with a clinician or other practitioner.
A measure of a child's developmental and behavioral skills designed to determine eligibility for services.
A brief, easy-to-complete formal test of children's developmental skills that reliably discriminate those who should be referred for further, more comprehensive assessment from those who should not be referred.
None of the above.
At the heart of all early detection systems is the actual process of developmental-behavioral screening.
Developmental-behavioral screening is defined as a brief, easy-to-complete formal test of young children's developmental skills that reliably discriminate those children who should be referred for further, more comprehensive assessment from those who should not be referred.
What should developmental-behavioral screening results determine?
the types of services that may be appropriate for the child and family
whether the child has a delay or disability
whether the child should receive social-emotional or academic intervention
which practitioners will be receiving a forthcoming referral for the child
whether the child's developmental status appears to be 1) typical, 2) borderline, or 3) in need of further assessment based on his or her performance score
Developmental-behavioral screening results should yield one of three outcomes: The child's developmental status appears to be 1) typical, 2) borderline, or 3) in need of further assessment based on his or her performance score.
If a child's score is in the typical range, then the screener informs the parent that the child's performance is what one would expect from other children in the same age. If a child's score falls into the borderline range of one or more developmental-behavioral areas, the screener informs the parent and recommends a follow-up screening. If a child's score is in the needs further assessment range, then the screener recommends more comprehensive assessments to determine what type of services may be appropriate for the child and family.
How important is universal and periodic early identification of young children?
Screening is only necessary for children of families from low socioeconomic backgrounds or other at-risk circumstances.
Children whose results fall into the typical range do not need repeated screening.
Universal and periodic early identification of all young children is critical.
Children from culturally and linguistically diverse families can be exempted because of language differences.
Screening is unnecessary as long as developmentally appropriate practices are being followed.
There is a need for universal and periodic early identification of all young children between birth and age 5 because children's development is dynamic and problems can arise at any time during the early years.
Without periodic developmental-behavioral screening of children, timely identification is not possible and problems may evolve into more serious threats to well-being.
What role does monitoring play in a developmental-behavioral screening program?
Monitoring refers to the process of periodically checking a child's status over time.
Monitoring refers to the process of keeping in touch with a child's parent to see if issues of concern warrant screening.
Monitoring refers to the process of tracking a child's development through the use of an audio device.
Monitoring refers to a central system set up for practitioners across disciplines to check in on a child's progress.
None of the above.
In the context of developmental-behavioral screening, monitoring (tracking or follow-along) refers to the process of periodically checking a child's developmental-behavioral status over time. Medical personnel often use the word surveillance; however, many education, social services, and developmental specialists are unfamiliar with its use in the context of screening.
The purpose of monitoring/tracking is to ensure that children continue to thrive and meet developmental-behavioral expectations for their chronological age.
What does "referral" mean in the context of a developmental-behavioral screening program?
"Referral" refers to the title of the annual report of the percentage of all children with scores outside the typical range required by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP).
"Referral" is what occurs when the screener consults with a senior practitioner about next steps to take.
"Referral" is the process of directing other service providers to online resources that may be able to assist families.
"Referral" describes the action taken by screening personnel to get families connected to the next appropriate service.
All of the above.
In the case of screening, referral refers to the concrete action that screening personnel take to get families connected to the next appropriate service. In most cases, it is focused on assisting parents or caregivers in arranging for a more comprehensive assessment of their child to determine if intervention services are in order.
The purpose of referral is to ensure that children and families are connected to an appropriate agency that can provide a comprehensive evaluation.
What is the prevalence of disability and delay in young children in the United States?
In the United States, historical as well as contemporary research consistently suggests that approximately 15%-17% of children from birth to 21 years are diagnosed with a developmental-behavioral disorder or disability.
Here are some of the more commonly occurring conditions and their prevalence:
- social-emotional/behavioral disorders: 21%
- speech & language impairment: 13.5% (expressive speech delays, 18-23 months); 17.5% (expressive speech delays, 30-36 months); 7.4% (language impairment, 3-17 years)
- ADHD: 7.6% (3-17 years)
- learning disability: 7.2% (3-17 years)
- developmental coordination disorder: 1.7%-6% (5-11 years)
- intellectual disability: 0.67%-1.2% (3-17 years)
- autism spectrum disorder: 0.74%-1.1% (3-17 years)
How do early intervention services result in cost savings for the public?
By lowering the rates of grade remediation, special education, and high school dropouts
By decreasing the rates of alcohol, tobacco, substance abuse, and teen pregnancy
By lowering crime rates and thus lowering costs to the judicial and penal systems
By reducing the percentage of welfare-dependent adults and increasing the number of educated workers and thus the U.S. gross domestic product
All of the above.
The economic benefits of early intervention services have been examined. Estimates range from $4 to $17 returned for every dollar spent on such programs, in terms of greater earning power, improved mental health status, and job productivity.
If every child living in poverty received 2 years of quality early childhood education, this investment, it has been estimated, would yield a 16% annual return rate in cost savings through the effects listed.
What is the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for developmental screening?
At children's yearly well-child visits
Whenever clinical judgment indicates
When the child is 9, 18, 24, and 30 months, and whenever a clinician's surveillance demonstrates risk
At every visit for practices in high-risk locations
When the parent indicates concern
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all children receive early identification services, including surveillance and screening, and if needed, developmental or medical diagnostic evaluation.
The AAP recommends screening at 9, 18, 24, and 30 months, and children should be screened whenever a clinician's surveillance "demonstrates risk."
Despite this recommendation, most pediatric or other health care practices do not routinely screen their young patients or consistently refer children identified by a screening test for follow-up assessment to determine their eligibility for services.
What are 3 major barriers to the creation of a comprehensive, integrated, community-based early detection program?
Lack of administrative support, inadequate community awareness, and unfunded mandates
Practitioner resistance, lack of reimbursement, and inadequate time
Lack of coordinated services, accessibility, and necessary resources
Political pressures, parental resistance, and inadequate communication systems
None of the above
Although all these choices may represent barriers, there are 3 major barriers to the creation and operation of a comprehensive, integrated, community-based early detection program:
- the lack of coordinated services
- accessibility, and
- necessary resources to establish and maintain effective systems.
When early detection efforts are not coordinated at the local, regional, or state level, limited resources and time may be used ineffectively and inefficiently by personnel implementing programs. Access is challenging for many families, particularly those living in rural areas and those with limited education and income. Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are often not identified until entry into school. Also, given dwindling federal and state resources, many programs would be hard-pressed to add a new service without a new funding source.